March 29, 2017

Recorded webinar on use of media in higher education

The SECTIONS model for choosing media

The SECTIONS model for choosing media

The second of four webinars on my open, online textbook, Teaching in a Digital Age, was ‘broadcast’ last Tuesday (3 November 2015) by Contact North. In this webinar, I discussed the issues covered in Chapters 6 and 7 on Understanding Technology in Education and Pedagogical Differences between Media‘.

The webinar was recorded and is now available for downloading from here.

As well as a brief summary of the main topics, the webinar also provides my personal views on these topics, as well as answers to a range of challenging questions from the 45 participants, including participants from Argentina, Australia, Nigeria, South Africa, the U.K. and the USA. If you have been reading these two chapters, the webinar is a very useful extra resource.

The recording of the first webinar in the series, Teaching with Technology – How to Use the Best Practice Models and Options’, mainly discusses the main issues raised in the first five chapters in the book, in particular different teaching methods for teaching in a digital age. That webinar is also available for downloading from here.

The third webinar in the series, Making the Choice – How to Choose between Online, Blended or Campus-Based Delivery for Effective Learning, covering chapters 9 and 10 of the book, will be on Monday, November 23, 2015 at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time, North America (same time as Toronto/New York). To register, click here.

The final webinar will be on December 3, discussing how to ensure quality in teaching in a digital age. After that I will be resolving the crises in the Middle East and Afghanistan, which are simpler in camparison.

Nine questions to ask when choosing modes of delivery

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Figure 10.5.2 Can the study of haematology be done online?

Figure 10.6.1 Can the study of haematology be done online?

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This is the fifth of five posts on choosing modes of delivery for Chapter 10 of my online open textbook, Teaching in a Digital Age.

The previous four posts were:

So now we come to the denouement! (Exciting, eh!). In this post (spoiler alert) I will suggest a methodology and a set of questions to ask in order to reach a decision for any particular course or program.

A suggested method for deciding between online and face-to-face delivery on solely pedagogic grounds

The standard work on this is by Dietmar Kennepohl, of Athabasca University (Kennepohl, 2010). I have drawn heavily on his work here, although the example given is mine.

The most pragmatic way to go about this is to trust the knowledge and experience of subject experts who are willing to approach this question in an open-minded way, especially if they are willing to work with instructional designers or media producers on an equal footing. So here is a process for determining when to go online and when not to, on purely pedagogical grounds, for a course that is being designed from scratch in a blended delivery mode.

I will choose a subject area at random: haematology (the study of blood), in which I am not an expert. But here’s what I would suggest if I was working with a subject specialist in this area:

Step 1: identify the main instructional approach.

This is discussed in some detail in Chapters 3 to 4, but here are the kinds of decision to be considered:

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Table 10.6.2 Which teaching approach?

Table 10.6.2 Which teaching approach?

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This should lead to a general plan or approach to teaching that identifies the teaching methods to be used in some detail. In the example of haematology, the instructor wants to take a more constructivist approach, with students developing a critical approach to the subject matter. In particular, she wants to relate the course specifically to certain issues, such as security in handling and storing blood, factors in blood contamination, and developing student skills in analysis and interpretation of blood samples.

Step 2. Identify the main content to be covered

and in particular any presentational requirements of the content, i.e. what do they need to know in this course? In haematology, this will mean understanding the chemical composition of blood, what its functions are, how it circulates through the body, what external factors may weaken its integrity or functionality, etc. In terms of presentation, dynamic activities need to be explained, and representing key concepts in colour will almost certainly be valuable. Observations of blood samples under many degrees of magnitude will be essential, i.e. the use of a microscope.

Step 3. Identify the main skills to be developed during the course

what they must be able to do with the content they are learning. This will probably include the ability to analyse the components of blood, such as the glucose and insulin levels, to interpret the results, and to present a report.

Let’s call Steps 2 and 3 the key learning objectives for the course.

Step 4: Analyse the most appropriate mode for each learning objective

Then create a table as in Figure 10.6.3

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Figure 10.5.4 Allocating mode of delivery

Figure 10.6.3 Allocating mode of delivery

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In this example, the instructor is keen to move as much as possible online, so she can spend as much time as possible with students, dealing with laboratory work and answering questions about theory and practice. She was able to find some excellent online videos of several of the key interactions between blood and other factors, and she was also able to find some suitable graphics and simple animations of the molecular structure of blood which she could adapt, as well as creating with the help of a graphics designer her own graphics. Indeed, she found she had to create relatively little new material or content herself.

The instructional designer also found some software that enabled students to design their own laboratory set-up for certain elements of blood testing which involved combining virtual equipment, entering data values and running an experiment.  However, there were still some skills that needed to be done hands-on in the laboratory, such as inserting glucose and using a ‘real’ microscope to analyse the chemical components of blood. However, the online material enabled the instructor to spend more time in the lab with students.

This is a crude method of determining the balance between face-to-face teaching and online learning for a blended learning course, but it least it’s a start. A similar kind of process was used in the early days of the Open University, when science faculty worked with BBC producers and instructional designers to decide between the use of text, audio, television, home experimental kits and a compulsory residential campus-based laboratory component for the foundation science program. The desired content and skills were identified then allocated across the different media. Because the residential component was the most expensive and the least flexible for students, the aim was to move as much as possible to the other modes, in order to keep to a minimum the residential component. This resulted in a highly successful program which won high praise and awards in science teaching at the time. In fact the Open University no longer has a compulsory residential component for its science courses.

10.6.2 Analyse the resources available

There is one more consideration besides the type of learners, the overall teaching method, and making decisions based on pedagogical grounds, and that is to consider the resources available.

This will need to take place in parallel with steps 1-4 above. In particular, the key resource is the time of the instructor. Careful consideration is needed about how best to spend the limited time available to this instructor. It may be all very well to identify a series of videos as the best way to capture some of the procedures for blood testing, but if these videos do not already exist in a format that can be freely used, shooting video specially for this one course may not be justified, in terms of either the time the instructor would need to spend on video production, or the costs of making the videos with a professional crew.

The availability and skill level of learning technology support from the institution will also be a critical factor. Can the instructor get the support of an instructional designer and media producers? If not, it is likely that much more will be done face-to-face than online, unless the instructor is already very experienced in online learning.

Are there resources available to buy out the instructor for one semester to spend time on course design? Many institutions have development funds for innovative teaching and learning, and there may be external grants or creating new open educational resources, for instance. This will increase the practicality and hence the likelihood of more of the teaching moving online.

We shall see that as more and more learning material becomes available as open educational resources, teachers and instructors will be freed up from mainly content presentation to focusing on more interaction with students, both online and face to face. However, although open educational resources are becoming increasingly available, they may not exist in the topics required or they may not be of adequate quality in terms of either content or production standards.

10.6.3 Questions for consideration in choosing modes of delivery

In summary, here are some questions to consider, when designing a course from scratch:

1. What kind of learners are likely to take this course? What are their needs? Which mode(s) of delivery will be most appropriate to these kinds of learners? Could I reach more or different types of learners by choosing a particular mode of delivery?

2. What is my view of how learners can best learn on this course? What is my preferred method(s) of teaching to facilitate that kind of learning on this course?

3. What is the main content (facts, theory, data, processes) that needs to be covered on this course?

4. What are the main skills that learners will need to develop on this course? What are the ways in which they can develop/practice these skills?

5. How can technology help with the presentation of content on this course?

6. How can technology help with the development of skills on this course?

7. When I list the content and skills to be taught, which of these could be taught:

  • fully online
  • partly online and partly face-to-face
  • can only be taught face-to-face?

8. What resources do I have available for this course in terms of:

  • professional help from instructional designers and media producers
  • possible sources of funding for release time and media production
  • good quality open educational resources

9. In the light of the answers to all these questions, which mode of delivery makes most sense?

Feedback

1. If anyone’s a haematologist out there, first forgive me, then tell me how to make it better. (I chose haematology, because I was asked when giving a presentation how would I apply this method to haematology – I had to think quickly on my feet.)

2. Would this method work for you? If not, how are decisions made in your institution about which mode to use? In particular, would you have to go to an unrealistic level of detail to do this for a whole course?

Next up

Open education and open educational resources.

Reference

Kennepohl, D. (2010) Accessible Elements: Teaching Science Online and at a Distance Athabasca AB: Athabasca University Press

 

Deciding on modes of delivery

This is the first of a series of five posts that look at the following:

  • deciding whether a whole course or program should be offered wholly face-to-face, as a blended course,  or wholly online
  • if a course is to be offered in a blended mode, how to decide on what’s done face-to-face, and what online.

This will form part of Chapter 10 on modes of delivery for my online textbook Teaching in a Digital Age.

Today I start by looking at the decisions instructors are now facing regarding what kind of course to offer. The following post will look at the problems in comparing delivery modes, then there will be three more posts on making decisions.

In Chapters 8 and 9, the use of media incorporated into a particular course or program was explored. In this chapter, the focus is on deciding whether a whole course or program should be offered partly or wholly online, and to what extent the course or program should be restricted to registered students or open to anyone.

Decisions, decisions

Online learning, blended learning, hybrid learning, flexible learning, open learning and distance learning are all terms that are often used inter-changeably, but there are significant differences in meaning. More importantly, these forms of education, once considered somewhat esoteric and out of the mainstream of conventional education, are increasingly taking on greater significance and in some cases becoming mainstream themselves.

We saw in Chapter 1, Section 7 that in recent years there has been:

  • major growth in the number of fully online course enrolments, now constituting almost one third of post-secondary enrolments in the USA;
  • a move towards blended learning, where on-campus students combine classroom or lab teaching with online work;
  • the development of the flipped classroom, where students study a video recorded lecture online then come to class for interaction with instructors and teaching assistants.
  • growing interest in developing and delivering MOOCs, which are open to anyone but do not directly lead to specific qualifications other than a badge or certificate
  • growing availability of open educational resources and open textbooks.

These developments open up a whole new range of decisions for instructors. Every instructor now needs to decide:

  • what kind of course or program should I be offering?
  • what factors should influence this decision?
  • what is the role of classroom teaching when students can now increasingly study most things online?
  • if content is increasingly open and free, how does that affect my role as an instructor?
  • when should I create my own material and when should I use open resources?
  • should I open up my teaching to anyone, and if so, under what circumstances?

Each of these questions will be addressed in this chapter.

The continuum of technology-based learning

We saw in Chapter 1, Section 7 that there is a variety of ways in which online learning is being used in education, and as teachers and instructors become more familiar and confident with online learning and new technologies, we will see more innovative methods developing all the time. At the time of writing though it is possible to identify at least the following modes of delivery:

  • classroom teaching with no technology at all (which is very rare these days).
  • blended learning, which encompasses a wide variety of designs, including:
    • technology-enhanced learning, or technology used as classroom aids; a typical example would be the use of Powerpoint slides and/or clickers
    • the use of a learning management system to support classroom teaching, for storing learning materials, set readings and perhaps online discussion
    • the use of lecture capture for flipped classrooms
    • one semester on a residential-type campus and two semesters online (the Royal Roads University model)
    • a shortened time on campus spent on campus hands-on experience or training preceded or followed by a concentrated time spent studying online (an example is apprenticeship training for mature students at Vancouver Community College, or what UBC calls the compressed classroom experience)
    • hybrid or flexible learning requiring the redesign of teaching so that students can do the majority of their learning online, coming to campus only for very specific face-to-face teaching, such as lab or hands-on practical work, that cannot be done satisfactorily online (for examples, see below.)
  • fully online learning with no classroom or on-campus teaching, which is one form of distance education, including:
    • courses for credit, which will usually cover the same content, skills and assessment as a campus-based version,
    • non-credit courses offered only online, such as courses for continuing professional education.
    • fully open courses, such as MOOCs
    • open educational resources, which either instructors or students can access to support teaching and learning

There is an important development within blended learning that deserves special mention, and that is the total re-design of campus-based classes that takes greater advantage of the potential of technology, which I call hybrid learning, with online learning combined with focused small group face-to-face interactions or mixing online and physical lab experiences. In such designs, the amount of face-to-face contact time is usually reduced, for instance from three classes a week to one, to allow more time for students to study online.

In hybrid learning the whole learning experience is re-designed, with a transformation of teaching on campus built around the use of technology. For instance:

  • Carol Twigg at the National Center for Academic Transformation has for many years worked with universities and colleges to redesign usually large lecture courses programs to improve learning and reduce costs through the use technology. This program has been running successfully since 1999.
  • Virginia Tech many years ago created a successful program for first and second year math teaching built around 24 x 7 computer-assisted learning supported by ‘roving’ instructors and teaching assistants (Robinson and Moore, 2006).
  • The University of British Columbia launched in 2013 what it calls a flexible learning initiative focused on developing, delivering, and evaluating learning experiences that promote effective and dramatic improvements in student achievement. Flexible learning enables pedagogical and logistical flexibility so that students have more choice in their learning opportunities, including when, where, and what they want to learn.

Thus there is a continuum of technology-based learning:

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Figure 10.1.2 The continuum of technology-based teaching

Figure 10.2 The continuum of technology-based teaching

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 (adapted from Bates and Poole, 2003)

Thus ‘blended learning’ can mean minimal rethinking or redesign of classroom teaching, such as the use of classroom aids, or complete redesign as in flexibly designed courses, which aim to identify the unique pedagogical characteristics of face-to-face teaching, with online learning providing flexible access for the rest of the learning.

Over to you

Other than recognising the increasingly significant choices that instructors now need to make regarding the design of courses, and particularly the range of blended learning designs that are emerging, there is nothing particularly new or challenging in this section, but it is necessary as preparation for what comes. However:

1. Is this classification of different modes of delivery helpful? If not how would you do it?

2. How is it decided in your institution whether a course is to be blended or online? Is this the personal choice of the instructor, is it a program decision or does the institution decide? What are the guidelines or criteria for making this decision?

3. I know the U of Ottawa and UBC have institutional plans for ‘flexible’ learning/blended learning. Any others? How are they going?

Next up

A real beauty: comparing delivery modes.

Chapter 9 on choosing media now published


Home entertainment system 2

The first draft of the whole of Chapter 9 on Choosing and Using Media in Education for my online open textbook Teaching in a Digital Age is now published.

Purpose of the chapter

The main purpose of this chapter is to provide a framework for making effective decisions about the choice and use of media for teaching and learning. The framework used is a new, updated version of the SECTIONS model, which stands for:

  • S tudents
  • E ase of use
  • C osts
  • T eaching functions (including the affordances of different media)
  • I nteraction
  • O rganisational issues
  • N etworking
  • S ecurity and privacy

On completion of this chapter, readers should be able to choose appropriate media and technology for any subject that they may be teaching, and be able to justify their decision.

Contents

The chapter covers:

Feedback

Chapter 9 is a bit of a monster at over 26,000 words but there is a lot of ground to cover. In a printed book I would be aiming at around 8,000-10,000 words per chapter. However the longest ‘section’ (9.3) is just over 3,000 words and I suspect most people will dip into parts of the book and indeed into this chapter rather than read it right through in one sitting.

However, if you are possibly interested in using this book on a course (and I know it’s being used on at least two courses already, even though the book is not finished), I’d really appreciate your comments on the following – or anything else about the chapter, for that matter:

1. Does the SECTIONS model work for you as a framework for making decisions about media selection? If not, what’s wrong with it?

2. Is Chapter 9 too long or does the subject matter need this extensive treatment? Is there a way to reduce the content?

3. Despite its length is there anything missing? In particular is there any other significant work on media selection that’s not covered in this chapter?

4. I’m desperate for more open source examples for each of the unique characteristics of each medium. Any suggested links will be much appreciated.

5. Does the nature of an online text enable longer pieces of work to be more manageable – or is it still necessary to keep an online book to less than 100,000 words and a chapter to no more than 10,000 words?

Chapter 10

In the next chapter, Modes of Delivery, I will provide a framework for deciding between face-to-face, blended and online learning, including an analysis of the unique characteristics of face-to-face teaching in a digital age. Happy reading!

 

39 questions to ask when choosing media for teaching and learning

© bewareofimages.com, 2011

© bewareofimages.com, 2011

Yeah, 39 questions is a lot, but then there is a lot of things to take into consideration. I pulled together the key questions for consideration from Chapter 9 (just published) of my open textbook, ‘Teaching in a Digital Age.’

Take a look at them, then tell me:

(a) what have I missed

(b) what you would leave out

(c) if this is a futile exercise

These questions should be used in conjunction with Chapter 9, and address a real context that you may be facing, such as designing a new course.

It is recommended you work through each question one by one, possibly making notes of your answers. It is also recommended that you do this in a fairly systematic manner the first two or three times when faced with a possible choice of media for a whole course or program. This could take a few days, allowing time for thinking. Some questions may need to wait until other questions have been answered. It will likely to be an iterative process.

After you have worked through the questions, give yourself a day or two if possible before thinking about what media or technology will best fit with your course or program. Discuss  your thoughts about media use with other instructors and with any professionals such as an instructional designer or media designer before the design of the course. Leave yourself open to making more final decisions as you start designing/developing and delivering the course, with the option of checking back with your notes and more details in Chapter 9.

After the first two or three times of working through the questions, you will be able to be less systematic and quicker in making decisions, but the questions and answers to the questions should always be in your head when making decisions about media for teaching.

Students

1. What is the mandate or policy of your institution, department or program with respect to access? How will students who do not have access to a chosen technology be supported?

2. What are the likely demographics of the students you will be teaching? How appropriate is the technology you are thinking of using for these students?

3. If your students are to be taught at least partly off campus, to which technologies are they likely to have convenient and regular access at home or work?

4. If they are to be taught at least partly on campus, what is – or should be – your or your department’s policy with regard to students’ access to learning technologies in class?

5. What digital skills do you expect your students to have before they start the program?

6. If students are expected to provide their own access to technology, will you be able to provide unique teaching experiences that will justify the purchase or use of such technology?

7. What prior approaches to learning are the students likely to bring to your program? How suitable are such prior approaches to learning likely to be to the way you need to teach the course? How could technology be used to cater for student differences in learning?

Ease of use

8. How intuitively easy to use is the technology you are considering, both by students and by yourself?

9. How reliable is the technology?

10. How easy is it to maintain and up-grade the technology?

11. The company that is providing the critical hardware or software you are using: is it a stable company that is not likely to go out of business in the next year or two, or is it a new start-up? What strategies are in place to secure any digital teaching materials you create should the organisation providing the software or service cease to exist?

12. Do you have adequate technical and professional support, both in terms of the technology and with respect to the design of materials?

13. How fast developing is this subject area? How important is it to regularly change the teaching materials? Which technology will best support this?

14. To what extent can the changes be handed over to someone else to do, and/or how essential is it for you to do them yourself?

15. What rewards are you likely to get for using new technology in my teaching? Will use of a new technology be the only innovation, or can you also change your way of teaching with this technology to get better results

16. What are the risks in using this technology?

Cost/your time

17. Which media are likely to take a lot of your time to develop? Which could you do quickly and easily?

18. How much time do you spend preparing lectures? Could that time be better spent preparing learning materials, then using the time saved from delivering lectures on interaction with students (online and/or face-to-face)?

19. Is there a possibility of extra funding for innovative teaching or technology applications? How could you best use that funding?

20. What kind of help can you get in your institution from instructional designers and media professionals for media design and development?

21. What open educational resources could be used for this course? Could you use an open textbook, thereby saving students the cost of buying textbooks? Can the library or your learning technology support group help identify potential OERs for your course?

Teaching/educational factors

22. What are the desired learning outcomes from the teaching in terms of content and skills?

23. What instructional strategies will be employed to facilitate the learning outcomes?

24. What unique pedagogical characteristics of text will be appropriate for this course, in terms of content presentation and skills development?

25. What unique pedagogical characteristics of audio will be appropriate for this course, in terms of content presentation and skills development?

26. What unique pedagogical characteristics of video will be appropriate for this course, in terms of content presentation and skills development?

27. What unique pedagogical characteristics of computing will be appropriate for this course, in terms of content presentation and skills development?

28. What unique pedagogical characteristics of social media will be appropriate for this course, in terms of content presentation and skills development?

29. What really must be done face-to-face on this course? (Are you sure? Think about it!)

Interaction

30. In terms of the skills you are trying to develop, what kinds of interaction will be most useful? What media or technology could you use to facilitate that kind of interaction?

31. In terms of the effective use of your time, what kinds of interaction will produce a good balance between  student comprehension and student skills development, and the amount of time you will be interacting personally or online with students?

Organisational issues

32. How much and what kind of help can you get from the institution in choosing and using media for teaching? Is help easily accessible? How good is the help? Do they have the media professionalism you will need? Are they up to date in the use of new technologies for teaching?

33. Is there possible funding available to ‘buy you out’ for a semester and/or to fund a teaching assistant so you can concentrate on designing a new course or revising an existing course? Is there funding for media production?

34. To what extent will you have to follow ‘standard’ technologies, practices and procedures, such as using a learning management system, or lecture capture system, or will you be encouraged and supported to try something new?

Networking

35. How important is it to enable learners to network beyond a course, with others such as subject specialists, professionals in the field, and relevant people in the community? Can the course, or student learning, benefit from such external connections?

36. If this is important, what’s the best way to do this? Use social media exclusively? Integrate it with other standard course technology? Delegate responsibility for its design and/or administration to students or learners?

Security and privacy

37. What student information are you obliged to keep private and secure? What are my institution’s policies on this? Who would know?

38. What is the risk that by using a particular technology your institution’s policies concerning privacy could easily be breached? Who in your institution could advise you on this?

39. What areas of teaching and learning, if any, need you keep behind closed doors, available only to students registered in your course? Which technologies will best allow you to do this?