April 20, 2018

Distance education on a roll in the USA

Seaman, J.E., Allen, I.E., and Seaman, J. (2018) Grade Increase: Tracking Distance Education in the United States Wellesley MA: The Babson Survey Research Group

Boy, does that guy Jeff Seaman keep busy! Hard on the heels of quarter-backing the national survey of online and distance learning in Canadian post-secondary education, here he is with colleagues producing an even more comprehensive update on online and distance education in the USA.

There are several things though that make this report different, both from the Canadian study and previous Babson Reports:

  • first, online enrolments are now placed firmly in the context of overall student enrolments in the USA. While overall enrolments in the US higher education system have slowly declined (by almost 4% between 2012 to 2016), online enrolments have grown by about 5% over the same period. In comparison online enrolments in Canada grew by 40% in universities and by 60% in two year colleges over the same five year period, while overall enrolments grew slightly (by around 2%).
  • There are now fewer students studying on campus than at any point since 2012 in the USA. There are now over a million fewer students coming to campus in 2016 than there were in 2012.

  • As of Fall 2016, there were 6,359,121 students taking at least one distance education course, comprising 31.6% of all higher education enrollments. So online and distance students have been shoring up student enrolments in the USA over the last five years.
  • 83% of distance students are taking undergraduate courses and 17% post-graduate courses.
  • There are wide variations between the different HE sectors in the USA, both in terms of overall enrollments, and also distance education enrollments. Overall enrollments grew modestly in the public and private not-for-profit institutions over the four years but declined dramatically in public two year colleges (down 14%) and even more so in the private, for profit sector (down 32% and 40% respectively for four year and two year colleges).
  • For-profit institutions have seen their total distance education enrollments decrease during these time periods. These changes of course occurred before the Trump election and reflect the impact of the Obama administration’s regulatory efforts. It will be interesting to see how things change if at all during the Trump administration.
  • The majority of distance education students in the USA (69%) are in public institutions.
  • Distance education is generally local. The vast majority (84%) of students taking exclusively distance courses enrolled at public institutions are located in the same state as the institution.
  • Distance education is not international in the USA: In Fall 2016, there were only 45,475 students located outside of the United States taking exclusively distance courses. This represents only 1.5% of students taking exclusively distance courses, and only 0.7% of all distance education students.
  • Students enrolled in distance education remain highly concentrated in a relatively small number of institutions. Almost half of distance education students are accounted for in just 5% of institutions: the 235 institutions that represent only 5.0% of the higher education universe command 47% (2,985,347) of the student distance enrollments. The top 47 institutions, representing only 1.0% of all institutions, enroll 22.4% (1,421,703) of all distance students. This is very different from Canada, where distance education students are much more evenly distributed across almost all institutions.
  • There are wide variations between the different U.S. states. The report provides a breakdown of online enrolments for each state.
  • The study identifies the 50 institutions with the most distance education enrollments. The top seven are:

  • The enrollment data for this report uses information from the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) database.  IPEDS is a national census of postsecondary institutions in the U.S., which represents the most comprehensive data available. No such comprehensive post-secondary education data are publicly available in Canada.

This report indicates the value of an openly accessible national system of tracking online and distance education enrolments. Institutions must provide the data, especially as it influences federal state aid to students. Once such data are made publicly available, there are opportunities for all kinds of analyses to be made. The value though is that this is just part of a national program of data collection on higher education enrolments. We are nowhere close to matching this in Canada.

La version française de l’enquête nationale sur la formation à distance et l’apprentissage en ligne est maintenant disponible

Je suis très heureux d’annoncer que la version française du rapport public peut maintenant être téléchargée à l’adresse https://formationenlignecanada.ca/.

Je tiens à remercier Éric Martel, de l’Université Laval, Denis Mayer, l’un des membres de l’équipe de recherche et la traductrice Carole Freynet-Gagné pour tout leur travail. Ce n’était pas une tâche facile, puisqu’il fallait traduire à la fois les tableaux, les graphiques et le texte.

Cette version est une traduction du rapport public principal, et non un rapport distinct sur les établissements francophones. Le rapport public met tout de même en évidence des différences importantes entre les établissements francophones, notamment les cégeps, et les autres établissements postsecondaires canadiens.

Inscription

Vous devez vous inscrire pour télécharger l’un ou l’autre des rapports. Lorsque vous cliquez sur le bouton de téléchargement, vous verrez la case « Enregistrer » en bleu, dans le bas de l’écran. Cliquez sur cette case pour vous inscrire.

Vous devez vous inscrire une seule fois. Une fois que vous êtes inscrit, vous pouvez utiliser votre nom d’utilisateur et votre mot de passe pour télécharger n’importe quel rapport autant de fois que vous le voulez. Le processus d’inscription est le seul moyen dont nous disposons pour savoir qui consulte les rapports.

J’annoncerai sous peu, dans un autre billet de blogue, la publication d’un rapport distinct sur les établissements de l’Ontario.

 

‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ kitabının Türkçe çevirisi ‘Dijital Çağda Öğretim’ başlığıyla kısmen yayında

Image: Wikipedia Commons

‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ kitabının Türkçe çevirisinin ilk altı bölümü yayında…  ‘Dijital Çağda Öğretim’ başlığıyla yayınlanan kitaba, BCcampus Açık Ders Kitapları web sites inden erişebilir, çevrimiçi olarak okuyabilir veya indirebilirsiniz. Kitabın kalan altı bölümünün, önümüzdeki aylarda tamamlanmasını bekliyoruz.

Öncelikle Muğla SK Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Merkezi Müdürü ve Enformatik Bölümü Başkanı Dr. Müge Adnan ile Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Merkezi Müdürü ve Enformatik Bölümü Başkanı Dr. Yasemin Gülbahar’a, 500 küsur sayfalık bir kitabı Türkçe’ye çevirmek gibi göz korkutucu bir göreve gönüllü olarak talip oldukları için minnettarım. 

Türkiye’nin çevrimiçi ve uzaktan eğitim ile ilgili sahip olduğu bilgi, deneyim ve süregelen çalışmalar da göz önüne alındığında, kitabın Türkçe olarak da yayınlanıyor olması beni çok mutlu ediyor. 

Bugün itibariyle, İngilizce, Fransızca, İspanyolca, Portekizce, Çince ve Vietnam dilinde yayınlanan kitabın Türkçe çevirisine de diğerlerinde olduğu gibi BCcampus Açık Ders Kitapları web sites inden erişebilirsiniz. 

Turkish version of ‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ now available (partly)

Image: Wikipedia Commons

The first six chapters of ‘Teaching in a Digital Age‘ are now available in Turkish from the BCcampus Open Textbook web site. The following six chapters will become available over the next few months.

I am very grateful to Dr. Muge Adnan, Director of Distance Education Centre and Head of Informatics Department, Mugla SK University, Turkey and Dr. Yasemin Gulbahar, Deputy Director of Distance Education Centre and Head of Informatics Department, Ankara University, Turkey, for volunteering to do the daunting task of translating 500 pages+ into Turkish.

I am very pleased to have a Turkish version as Turkey has a great deal of online and distance education.

The Turkish version is now added to the English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese and Vietnamese versions, all available from the BCcampus Open Textbook web site.

There are also translations into Farsi, Arabic, Hebrew and Japanese under way.

I will use this blog site to update you as the translations become available.

 

Results from the Canadian survey of online learning now available

Bates, T. (ed.) (2017) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2017 Vancouver BC: The National Survey of Online and Distance Education in Canadian Post-Secondary Education.

The anglophone version of the public report, as well as the full technical report, is now available for free downloading (Click on the title above or onlinelearningsurveycanada.ca – you will be asked for your e-mail address and a password).

The francophone version of the public report will be available on October 27 from https://formationenlignecanada.ca

Key findings of the report are:

  • Canada is a ‘mature’ online learning market: almost all Canadian colleges and universities now offer online courses and many have been doing so for 15 years or more;
  • there is at least one institution in every province that offers online courses or programs;
  • online enrolments have expanded at a rate of 10%-15% per annum over the last five years;
  • online learning now constitutes between 12%-16% of all post-secondary teaching for credit;
  • online learning courses can be found in almost all subject areas;
  • online learning is providing students with increased access and greater flexibility;
  • two-thirds of Canadian post-secondary institutions see online learning as very or extremely important for their future plans

  • most institutions have or are developing a strategy or plan for online learning
  • LMSs are used in almost every institution, but no particular brand dominates the Canadian market
  • a wide range technologies are being used with or alongside the LMS,the most predominant (over half the institutions) being online conferencing/webinar technologies, video-streaming and print;
  • OER are used in just under half of all institutions but moderately and open textbooks in less than 20%
  • there was no or little use reported of learning analytics, AI applications or competency-based learning, although tracking such use is difficult, as they are instructor- rather than institution-driven
  • hybrid learning (defined as a reduction in classroom time replaced by online learning activities) is widespread in terms of institutions, but low in use in most institutions (less than 10% of classes), although again this is not easily tracked; however, it was reported to lead to innovative teaching;
  • MOOCs were delivered in less than 20% of institutions in the 12 months prior to the survey, and one third reported they did not intend to offer MOOCs in the future
  • the main benefits of online learning were seen as:
    • increased access/flexibility
    • increased enrolments
    • more innovative teaching;
  • the main barriers were seen as:
    • lack of resources (particularly learning technology support staff)
    • faculty resistance
    • lack of government support (reported most in Québec and least in Ontario);
  • there were difficulties in obtaining reliable online course enrolment data: most institutions are not systematically tracking this and there are variations between provinces;
  • the report ends by recommending a standard system for reporting on digital learning.

Implications

The report deliberately does not draw out any implications or make any value judgements. Readers should draw their own conclusions. However here are my personal thoughts on the results, and these do not necessarily reflect those of the rest of the team:

  • smaller institutions (below 2,000 students) found lack of resources particularly difficult and were less likely to offer online courses: what could be done to provide better support for such institutions that want to offer more online teaching?
  • government support to institutions for online learning varied widely from province to province, and this showed in the figures for enrolment and for innovative teaching: some provinces may need to reconsider their policies and support for online learning or they will fall further behind other provinces in online provision for students
  • many institutions are in the process of developing strategies or plans for online learning: what worked and what did not work in those institutions that already have plans in place that could help inform those institutions now still developing plans in this area?

Next steps

This report would not have been possible without the support of many different organizations which are listed in the report itself. In particular, though, we are indebted to the staff in all the institutions who responded to the survey.

This is the first national snapshot of online and distance learning for both colleges and universities in Canada but its value will be much enhanced by a more longitudinal set of studies. The research team is working with potential sponsors to establish a stronger organizational structure, more secure long-term funding, and a more representative steering committee for the survey. I will be reporting back as these developments evolve.

In the meantime, thanks to everyone who helped make this report a reality.