September 22, 2018

Book review: Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas

Qayyum, A. and Zawacki-Richter, O. (eds.) Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas: National Perspectives in a Digital Age Singapore: Springer, US$24+

Why this book?

This book is the first of two volumes aimed at describing how open and distance education (ODE) is evolving to reflect the needs and circumstance of the national higher education systems in various countries. A second goal is to compare how DE is organized and structured in various countries.

What does the book cover?

This first volume covers Australia, Europe and the Americas; the second book (still to come) covers Asia, Africa and the Middle East (including Russia and Turkey).

Who wrote it?

This is a well-edited book, with individual chapters written by experts within each country, following a roughly consistent structure in terms of topics. There is a main chapter for each country, with a useful second opinion from another country expert in terms of a commentary on the main chapter, as follows:

  • Introduction (ODE in a Digital Age): Qayyum and Zawacki-Richter
  • Australia: Colin Latchem (commentary by Som Naidu)
  • Brazil: Fred Litto (commentary by Maria Renata da Cruz Duran and Adnan Qayyum)
  • Canada: Tony Bates (commentary by Terry Anderson)
  • Germany: Ulrich Bernath and Joachim Stöter (commentary by Burkhard Lehmann)
  • United Kingdom: Anne Gaskell (commentary by Alan Tait)
  • United States of America: Michael Beaudoin (commentary by Gary Miller)
  • Conclusions: Qayyum and Zawacki-Richter

What’s in it?

There is some variation between the chapters, reflecting some of the differences between different countries, but most chapters have the following structure:

  • Context: most chapters start with a section that provides the wider context in which ODE operates within a country, either in terms of history or a brief description of the current higher education system as a whole. This sometimes includes how DE is funded (or not funded) by governments.
  • Enrolments and growth: each chapter attempts (heroically in some cases) to estimate just how many distance education students there are within the country and the rate of growth. What is noticeable here is how much variation there is in the accuracy or reliability of these estimates between different countries, partly because of the blurring of definitions between online and blended learning, but partly because in some countries, no-one seems to be counting.
  • Quality assurance/quality control: this describes both the regulatory framework for HE within each country and how that is applied to ODE.
  • Descriptions of specific ODE institutions: these sections describe those specialized institutions that play a major role in ODE within their respective countries.
  • OER and MOOCs. Most chapters discuss the use of open educational resources and MOOCs in their country.
  • The relationship between public and private provision of ODE. This is very useful as the relationship varies considerably between different countries.
  • The future of ODE within each country: this section looks at both challenges and opportunities.

In addition, Qayyum and Zawicki-Richter provide an excellent concluding chapter, that compares the different countries in terms of:

  • size and growth of ODE: ODE enrolments constitute between at least 10-20% of all HE enrolments in Australia, Brazil, Canada and the USA. In the UK and Germany, though, the proportions are likely to be less than 10%;
  • providers of DE: one reason reliable data collection has been difficult is because of the growth in different types of institutions providing DE: specialized ODE providers have in general increased their numbers; more campus-based institutions have become providers of ODE; and private institutions offering ODE have grown. However, this varies considerably from country to country. In the UK, for instance, ODE enrolments have been dropping at the UKOU, but possibly increasing from campus-based providers. In the USA, enrolments from the for-profit ODE providers have been dropping but increasing in the private and public on-campus institutions. What is clear is the impact on ODE enrolments of government policies regarding funding and tuition fees;
  • online vs other forms of DE: again, this differs between countries (and probably even more so in the countries to be covered in the next book). In Australia, Canada, the USA and the UK, ODE is nearly synonymous with online learning; Brazil has ‘leapfrogged’ to mobile learning;
  • the role of government: too complex to summarise here: read the chapter!
  • the function of ODE: ODE appears to play three major functions in HE systems: increasing access; providing greater flexibility to those with access; and ‘abetting in the larger digital transformation of HE’;
  • trends and future challenges: ODE on a macro level is being affected by two factors: the global growth in demand for HE; and the digital revolution. Surprisingly, though, it is less affected by globalization: ‘ODE seems to function mainly, though not wholly, within the nation state’ – except for MOOCs. This chapter has a very good discussion of these issues, particularly the differences between education as a public or private good, and ODE’s role in each.

My comments

The book sets out clearly the extent and importance of ODE in higher education. A careful reading will also indicate the importance of government and institutional policies in supporting or restricting ODE.

This and the second book in this series therefore should be required reading in any post-graduate education program. It should also be required reading by policy analysts in Ministries of Advanced (or Higher) Education. I would also recommend it to Boards of Governors and Provosts/VP Academic in any post-secondary institution. 

I look forward with impatience to reading the second volume, which for me will be even more valuable as I know so little about ODE in many of the countries covered in the second book.

If I have any negative comments, it is about what is not in the book. I think it is a pity that there is no chapter on France, Mexico or Argentina, all of which are very large countries with substantial and uniquely different distance education provision. And of course it is solely about formal post-secondary education. Other books are needed to cover international distance education in the k-12 and corporate sectors.

Also, this book will easily become outdated, given the rapid developments in ODE around the world. It took over two years from the time I was approached to write the chapter and the book’s publication. In this period, the first national survey of online learning in Canadian post-secondary education was published, the results of which had to be hastily accommodated in the last proofs of the book.

Furthermore, the book is an open publication, and is free to download, licensed as open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. However, it is not expensive to buy a hard copy, and I hope if you have an an interest in open and distance education you will make this a standard book on your shelves – after you have read it!

(Note: in an earlier version of this post I incorrectly stated that it could not be downloaded for free. My apologies).

Distance education on a roll in the USA

Seaman, J.E., Allen, I.E., and Seaman, J. (2018) Grade Increase: Tracking Distance Education in the United States Wellesley MA: The Babson Survey Research Group

Boy, does that guy Jeff Seaman keep busy! Hard on the heels of quarter-backing the national survey of online and distance learning in Canadian post-secondary education, here he is with colleagues producing an even more comprehensive update on online and distance education in the USA.

There are several things though that make this report different, both from the Canadian study and previous Babson Reports:

  • first, online enrolments are now placed firmly in the context of overall student enrolments in the USA. While overall enrolments in the US higher education system have slowly declined (by almost 4% between 2012 to 2016), online enrolments have grown by about 5% over the same period. In comparison online enrolments in Canada grew by 40% in universities and by 60% in two year colleges over the same five year period, while overall enrolments grew slightly (by around 2%).
  • There are now fewer students studying on campus than at any point since 2012 in the USA. There are now over a million fewer students coming to campus in 2016 than there were in 2012.

  • As of Fall 2016, there were 6,359,121 students taking at least one distance education course, comprising 31.6% of all higher education enrollments. So online and distance students have been shoring up student enrolments in the USA over the last five years.
  • 83% of distance students are taking undergraduate courses and 17% post-graduate courses.
  • There are wide variations between the different HE sectors in the USA, both in terms of overall enrollments, and also distance education enrollments. Overall enrollments grew modestly in the public and private not-for-profit institutions over the four years but declined dramatically in public two year colleges (down 14%) and even more so in the private, for profit sector (down 32% and 40% respectively for four year and two year colleges).
  • For-profit institutions have seen their total distance education enrollments decrease during these time periods. These changes of course occurred before the Trump election and reflect the impact of the Obama administration’s regulatory efforts. It will be interesting to see how things change if at all during the Trump administration.
  • The majority of distance education students in the USA (69%) are in public institutions.
  • Distance education is generally local. The vast majority (84%) of students taking exclusively distance courses enrolled at public institutions are located in the same state as the institution.
  • Distance education is not international in the USA: In Fall 2016, there were only 45,475 students located outside of the United States taking exclusively distance courses. This represents only 1.5% of students taking exclusively distance courses, and only 0.7% of all distance education students.
  • Students enrolled in distance education remain highly concentrated in a relatively small number of institutions. Almost half of distance education students are accounted for in just 5% of institutions: the 235 institutions that represent only 5.0% of the higher education universe command 47% (2,985,347) of the student distance enrollments. The top 47 institutions, representing only 1.0% of all institutions, enroll 22.4% (1,421,703) of all distance students. This is very different from Canada, where distance education students are much more evenly distributed across almost all institutions.
  • There are wide variations between the different U.S. states. The report provides a breakdown of online enrolments for each state.
  • The study identifies the 50 institutions with the most distance education enrollments. The top seven are:

  • The enrollment data for this report uses information from the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) database.  IPEDS is a national census of postsecondary institutions in the U.S., which represents the most comprehensive data available. No such comprehensive post-secondary education data are publicly available in Canada.

This report indicates the value of an openly accessible national system of tracking online and distance education enrolments. Institutions must provide the data, especially as it influences federal state aid to students. Once such data are made publicly available, there are opportunities for all kinds of analyses to be made. The value though is that this is just part of a national program of data collection on higher education enrolments. We are nowhere close to matching this in Canada.

La version française de l’enquête nationale sur la formation à distance et l’apprentissage en ligne est maintenant disponible

Je suis très heureux d’annoncer que la version française du rapport public peut maintenant être téléchargée à l’adresse https://formationenlignecanada.ca/.

Je tiens à remercier Éric Martel, de l’Université Laval, Denis Mayer, l’un des membres de l’équipe de recherche et la traductrice Carole Freynet-Gagné pour tout leur travail. Ce n’était pas une tâche facile, puisqu’il fallait traduire à la fois les tableaux, les graphiques et le texte.

Cette version est une traduction du rapport public principal, et non un rapport distinct sur les établissements francophones. Le rapport public met tout de même en évidence des différences importantes entre les établissements francophones, notamment les cégeps, et les autres établissements postsecondaires canadiens.

Inscription

Vous devez vous inscrire pour télécharger l’un ou l’autre des rapports. Lorsque vous cliquez sur le bouton de téléchargement, vous verrez la case « Enregistrer » en bleu, dans le bas de l’écran. Cliquez sur cette case pour vous inscrire.

Vous devez vous inscrire une seule fois. Une fois que vous êtes inscrit, vous pouvez utiliser votre nom d’utilisateur et votre mot de passe pour télécharger n’importe quel rapport autant de fois que vous le voulez. Le processus d’inscription est le seul moyen dont nous disposons pour savoir qui consulte les rapports.

J’annoncerai sous peu, dans un autre billet de blogue, la publication d’un rapport distinct sur les établissements de l’Ontario.

 

‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ kitabının Türkçe çevirisi ‘Dijital Çağda Öğretim’ başlığıyla kısmen yayında

Image: Wikipedia Commons

‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ kitabının Türkçe çevirisinin ilk altı bölümü yayında…  ‘Dijital Çağda Öğretim’ başlığıyla yayınlanan kitaba, BCcampus Açık Ders Kitapları web sites inden erişebilir, çevrimiçi olarak okuyabilir veya indirebilirsiniz. Kitabın kalan altı bölümünün, önümüzdeki aylarda tamamlanmasını bekliyoruz.

Öncelikle Muğla SK Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Merkezi Müdürü ve Enformatik Bölümü Başkanı Dr. Müge Adnan ile Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Merkezi Müdürü ve Enformatik Bölümü Başkanı Dr. Yasemin Gülbahar’a, 500 küsur sayfalık bir kitabı Türkçe’ye çevirmek gibi göz korkutucu bir göreve gönüllü olarak talip oldukları için minnettarım. 

Türkiye’nin çevrimiçi ve uzaktan eğitim ile ilgili sahip olduğu bilgi, deneyim ve süregelen çalışmalar da göz önüne alındığında, kitabın Türkçe olarak da yayınlanıyor olması beni çok mutlu ediyor. 

Bugün itibariyle, İngilizce, Fransızca, İspanyolca, Portekizce, Çince ve Vietnam dilinde yayınlanan kitabın Türkçe çevirisine de diğerlerinde olduğu gibi BCcampus Açık Ders Kitapları web sites inden erişebilirsiniz. 

Turkish version of ‘Teaching in a Digital Age’ now available (partly)

Image: Wikipedia Commons

The first six chapters of ‘Teaching in a Digital Age‘ are now available in Turkish from the BCcampus Open Textbook web site. The following six chapters will become available over the next few months.

I am very grateful to Dr. Muge Adnan, Director of Distance Education Centre and Head of Informatics Department, Mugla SK University, Turkey and Dr. Yasemin Gulbahar, Deputy Director of Distance Education Centre and Head of Informatics Department, Ankara University, Turkey, for volunteering to do the daunting task of translating 500 pages+ into Turkish.

I am very pleased to have a Turkish version as Turkey has a great deal of online and distance education.

The Turkish version is now added to the English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese and Vietnamese versions, all available from the BCcampus Open Textbook web site.

There are also translations into Farsi, Arabic, Hebrew and Japanese under way.

I will use this blog site to update you as the translations become available.