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  1. Tom Carey
    September 4, 2013 - 4:57 pm

    A good example of how instructional design can affect variable costs to enable scaling up is the Calibrated Peer Review method (, summarized in the HEQCO report on page 27). This shifts the nature of the instructor’s variable cost work, from grading student papers to monitoring and resolving breakdowns in the Calibrated Peer Review process. The revised process can significantly reduce the variable costs of significant writing assignments in large class cohorts, and the research evidence demonstrates that the quality of student learning can increase with this instructional design – when done well, of course. (There is some modest increase in fixed costs to create the tasks and resources for students to calibrate their grading with those of the instructor on sample papers, so that this method may be more costly for small classes.)

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