Figure 9. The Open University on iTunesU
This is the third post on the unique characteristics of different media, for my open textbook, Teaching in a Digital Age.
Although it will be seen that there are good pedagogical reasons for using video, it presents much more of a challenge to faculty than the use of text or audio. Producing video that exploits the unique characteristics of video is not something that most faculty have the time or ability to do themselves, and adds substantial cost to a course.
The alternative of course is video available as an open educational resources, and good luck with that. I had great difficulty in finding suitable open educational resources to use as examples (although there are talking heads in abundance). If anything, the availability of good quality video OERs has declined recently, with much of the material previously available through Open Learn and other sources such as iTunesU and even YouTube now removed. Copyright of good quality educational video is still pretty restricted, probably because of the high cost of producing it.
Reliability of OERs is becoming a critically important issue. If an instructor cannot rely on an OER being available in a year or two after incorporation into their teaching, OERs won’t get used. Maybe this is after all a good reason for learning object repositories.
Ideally, I would like to be able to link each one of these unique features to an open source video example. After two days trawling, I’ve come up with one (thank you, University of Nottingham, and Clint Lalonde for suggesting it!) So any suggestions for ‘open’ videos that provide examples for each of the characteristics below would be really appreciated. (Yes, I know I should ask a librarian, but I’m working on my own these days).
More power, more complexity
Although there have been massive changes in video technology over the last 25 years, resulting in dramatic reductions in the costs of both creating and distributing video, the unique educational characteristics are largely unaffected. (More recent computer-generated media such as simulations, will be analysed under ‘Computing’, in Section 9.5.4).
Video is a much richer medium than either text or audio, as in addition to its ability to offer text and sound, it can also offer dynamic or moving pictures. Thus while it can offer all the affordances of audio, and some of text, it also has unique pedagogical characteristics of its own. Once again, there has been considerable research on the use of video in education, and again I will be drawing on research from the Open University (Bates, 1985 2005; Koumi, 2006) as well as from Mayer (2009).
Video can be used to:
- demonstrate experiments or experimental situations, particularly:
- where equipment or phenomena to be observed are large, microscopic, expensive, inaccessible, dangerous, or difficult to observe without special equipment (click to see an example from the University of Nottingham)
- where the experimental design is complex
- where the experimental behaviour may be influenced by uncontrollable but observable variables
- illustrate principles involving dynamic change or movement
- illustrate abstract principles through the use of specially constructed physical models
- illustrate principles involving three-dimensional space
- demonstrate changes over time through the use of animation, slow-motion, or speeded-up video
- substitute for a field visit, by:
- providing students with an accurate, comprehensive visual picture of a site, in order to place the topic under study in context
- demonstrating the relationship between different elements of a system under study (e.g. production processes, ecological balance)
- by identifying and distinguishing between different classes or categories of phenomena at the site (e.g. in forest ecology)
- to observe differences in scale and process between laboratory and mass-production techniques
- through the use of models, animations or simulations, to teach certain advanced scientific or technological concepts (such as theories of relativity or quantum physics) without students having to master highly advanced mathematical techniques,
- bring students primary resource or case-study material, i.e. recording of naturally occurring events which, through editing and selection, demonstrate or illustrate principles covered elsewhere in a course
- demonstrate ways in which abstract principles or concepts developed elsewhere in the course have been applied to real-world problems
- synthesise a wide range of variables into a single recorded event, e.g. to suggest how real world problems can be resolved
- demonstrate decision-making processes or decisions ‘in action’ (e.g. triage in an emergency situation) by:
- recording the decision-making process as it occurs in real contexts
- recording ‘staged’ simulations, dramatisation or role-playing
- demonstrate correct procedures in using tools or equipment (including safety procedures)
- demonstrate methods or techniques of performance (e.g. mechanical skills such as stripping and re-assembling a carburetor, sketching, drawing or painting techniques, or dance)
- record and archive events that are crucial to topics in a course, but which may disappear or be destroyed in the near future, such as, for instance, street graffiti or condemned buildings
- demonstrate practical activities to be carried out by students, on their own.
This usually requires the video to be integrated with student activities. The ability to stop, rewind and replay video becomes crucial for skills development, as student activity usually takes place separately from the actual viewing of the video. This may mean thinking through carefully activities for students related to the use of video.
If video is not used directly for lecturing, research clearly indicates that students generally need to be guided as to what to look for in video, at least initially in their use of video for learning. There are various techniques for relating concrete events with abstract principles, such as through audio narration, using a still frame to highlight the observation, or repeating a small section of the program. Bates and Gallagher (1977) found that using video for developing higher order analysis or evaluation was a teachable skill that needs to be built into the development of a course or program, to get the best results.
Typical uses of video for skills development include:
- enabling students to recognize naturally occurring phenomena or classifications (e.g. teaching strategies, symptoms of mental illness, classroom behaviour) in context
- enabling students to analyse a situation, using principles either introduced in the video recording or covered elsewhere in the course, such as a textbook or lecture
- interpreting artistic performance (e.g. drama, spoken poetry, movies, paintings, sculpture, or other works of art)
- analysis of music composition, through the use of musical performance, narration and graphics
- testing the applicability or relevance of abstract concepts or generalisations in real world contexts
- looking for alternative explanations for real world phenomena.
Strengths and weaknesses of video as a teaching medium
One factor that makes video powerful for learning is its ability to show the relationship between concrete examples and abstract principles, with usually the sound track relating the abstract principles to concrete events shown in the video. Video is particularly useful for recording events or situations where it would be too difficult, dangerous, expensive or impractical to bring students to such events.
Thus its main strengths are as follows:
- linking concrete events and phenomena to abstract principles and vice versa
- the ability of students to stop and start, so they can integrate activities with video
- provides alternative approaches that can help students having difficulties in learning abstract concepts
- adds substantial interest to a course by linking it to real world issues
- a growing amount of freely available, high quality academic videos
- good for developing some of the higher level intellectual skills and some of the more practical skills needed in a digital age
- the use of low cost cameras and free editing software enables some forms of video to be cheaply produced.
The main weaknesses of video are:
- many faculty have no knowledge or experience in using video other than for recording lecturing
- there is currently a very limited amount of high quality educational video free for downloading, because the cost of developing high quality educational video that exploits the unique characteristics of the medium is still relatively high. Links also often go dead after a while, affecting the reliability of outsourced video. The availability of free material for educational use will improve over time, but currently finding appropriate and free videos that meet the specific needs of a teacher or instructor can be time-consuming or such material may just not be available or reliable
- creating original material that exploits the unique characteristics of video is time-consuming, and still relatively expensive, because it usually needs professional video production
- to get the most out of educational video, students need specially designed activities that sit outside the video itself
- students often reject videos that require them to do analysis or interpretation; they often prefer direct instruction that focuses primarily on comprehension. Such students need to be trained to use video differently, which requires time to be devoted to developing such skills.
For these reasons, video is not being used enough education. When used it is often an afterthought or an ‘extra’, rather than an integral part of the design, or is used merely to replicate a classroom lecture, rather than exploiting the unique characteristics of video.
If video is being used to develop the skills outlined in Section 220.127.116.11, then it is essential that these skills are assessed and count for grading. Indeed, one possible means of assessment might be to ask students to analyse or interpret a selected video, or even to develop their own media project, using video they themselves have collected or produced, using their own devices.
1. Take one of the courses you are teaching. What key presentational aspects of video could be important for this course?
2. Look at the skills listed in Section 1.3 of this book. Which of these skills would best be developed through the use of video rather than other media? How would you do this using video-based teaching?
3. Under what conditions would it be more appropriate for students to be assessed by asking them to analyse or make their own video recording? How could this be done under assessment conditions?
4. Type in the name of your topic + video into Google.
- How many videos come up?
- What’s their quality like?
- Could you use any of them in your teaching?
- If so, how would you integrate them into your course?
- Could you make a better video on the topic?
- What would enable you to do this?
Here are some criteria I would apply to what you find:
- it is relevant to what you want to teach
- it demonstrates clearly a particular topic or subject and links it to what the student is intended to learn
- it is short and to the point
- the example is well produced (clear camera work, good presenter, clear audio)
- it provides something that I could not do easily myself
- it is freely available for non-commercial use
I have to say that most of the examples I found on the Internet do NOT meet all of these criteria! The videos I have linked to in this section do, but then some are produced for the Open University. Can traditional university in-house media departments meet this standard?
1. Are there other characteristics unique to video that I’ve missed?
2. Is this the best way to approach this topic? (I accept I need lots more examples in video format). Will this approach to choosing/ using video be helpful for faculty?
3. Any examples of using video for assessment?
4. What do you think of the principles I suggested for selecting video OERs in the activity? Can traditional university in-house media departments meet this standard in producing OERs, or is it just too expensive to make these kinds of video?
5. Any other suggested references?
Bates, A. (1985) Broadcasting in Education: An Evaluation London: Constables (out of print – try a good library)
Bates, A. (2005) Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education London/New York: Routledge
Koumi, J. (2006). Designing video and multimedia for open and flexible learning. London: Routledge.
Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed). New York: Cambridge University Press.