Bates, T. (ed.) (2017) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2017 Vancouver BC: The National Survey of Online and Distance Education in Canadian Post-Secondary Education.
The anglophone version of the public report, as well as the full technical report, is now available for free downloading (Click on the title above or onlinelearningsurveycanada.ca – you will be asked for your e-mail address and a password).
The francophone version of the public report will be available on October 27 from https://formationenlignecanada.ca
Key findings of the report are:
- Canada is a ‘mature’ online learning market: almost all Canadian colleges and universities now offer online courses and many have been doing so for 15 years or more;
- there is at least one institution in every province that offers online courses or programs;
- online enrolments have expanded at a rate of 10%-15% per annum over the last five years;
- online learning now constitutes between 12%-16% of all post-secondary teaching for credit;
- online learning courses can be found in almost all subject areas;
- online learning is providing students with increased access and greater flexibility;
- two-thirds of Canadian post-secondary institutions see online learning as very or extremely important for their future plans
- most institutions have or are developing a strategy or plan for online learning
- LMSs are used in almost every institution, but no particular brand dominates the Canadian market
- a wide range technologies are being used with or alongside the LMS,the most predominant (over half the institutions) being online conferencing/webinar technologies, video-streaming and print;
- OER are used in just under half of all institutions but moderately and open textbooks in less than 20%
- there was no or little use reported of learning analytics, AI applications or competency-based learning, although tracking such use is difficult, as they are instructor- rather than institution-driven
- hybrid learning (defined as a reduction in classroom time replaced by online learning activities) is widespread in terms of institutions, but low in use in most institutions (less than 10% of classes), although again this is not easily tracked; however, it was reported to lead to innovative teaching;
- MOOCs were delivered in less than 20% of institutions in the 12 months prior to the survey, and one third reported they did not intend to offer MOOCs in the future
- the main benefits of online learning were seen as:
- increased access/flexibility
- increased enrolments
- more innovative teaching;
- the main barriers were seen as:
- lack of resources (particularly learning technology support staff)
- faculty resistance
- lack of government support (reported most in Québec and least in Ontario);
- there were difficulties in obtaining reliable online course enrolment data: most institutions are not systematically tracking this and there are variations between provinces;
- the report ends by recommending a standard system for reporting on digital learning.
The report deliberately does not draw out any implications or make any value judgements. Readers should draw their own conclusions. However here are my personal thoughts on the results, and these do not necessarily reflect those of the rest of the team:
- smaller institutions (below 2,000 students) found lack of resources particularly difficult and were less likely to offer online courses: what could be done to provide better support for such institutions that want to offer more online teaching?
- government support to institutions for online learning varied widely from province to province, and this showed in the figures for enrolment and for innovative teaching: some provinces may need to reconsider their policies and support for online learning or they will fall further behind other provinces in online provision for students
- many institutions are in the process of developing strategies or plans for online learning: what worked and what did not work in those institutions that already have plans in place that could help inform those institutions now still developing plans in this area?
This report would not have been possible without the support of many different organizations which are listed in the report itself. In particular, though, we are indebted to the staff in all the institutions who responded to the survey.
This is the first national snapshot of online and distance learning for both colleges and universities in Canada but its value will be much enhanced by a more longitudinal set of studies. The research team is working with potential sponsors to establish a stronger organizational structure, more secure long-term funding, and a more representative steering committee for the survey. I will be reporting back as these developments evolve.
In the meantime, thanks to everyone who helped make this report a reality.